Recommended Amount of Milk Per Day, 1923 and 2023

glass of milkA hundred years ago, it was recommended that adults drink 2 cups of milk per day, while current recommendations are 3 cups per day. For children, the recommendation back then was 3 cups of milk per day, while the recommended amount now is based on age, but less for small children than in 1923.

A 1923 home economics textbook said:

One pint [2 cups] of whole milk should be allowed for each adult, and one and one-half pints [3 cups] for each child over two years of age; the younger child may need more. In addition to the prescribed allowance of whole milk, skimmed milk may be used in cooking as a source of protein and mineral matter. Part of the milk allowance for the family may well be supplied in milk soups, custards, bread, rice, and other pudding, cocoa and chocolate and in white sauce with vegetables, eggs and meats.

Economics of the Family (1923) by C.W. Taber and Ruth A. Wardall

Current recommendations, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s MyPlate website, are:

  • children 12-23 months should drink 1 2/3 – 2 cups of milk per day
  • children 2-3 years should drink 2 – 2 1/2 cups of milk per day
  • children 4-8 years should drink 2 1/2 cups of milk per day
  • children 9 and older should drink 3 cups of mil per day
  • adults should drink 3 cups of milk per day.

Old-fashioned Orange Fritters

Orange Fritters

I recently made a hundred-year-old recipe for old-fashioned orange fritters that was delightful. These deep-fried nuggets seemed almost decadent when served with the accompanying orange sauce.

Here’s the original recipe:

Recipe for Orange Fritters
Source: General Welfare Guild Cook Book (1923, The General Welfare Guild, The Beaver County General Hospital. New Brighton, Pennsylvania)

This recipe made a lot of fritters – and not a lot of sauce. If I made the full recipe again, I’d consider doubling the sauce.

Here’s the recipe updated for modern cooks:

Orange Fritters

  • Servings: about 50 fritters
  • Difficulty: moderate
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6  small oranges or 4 large oranges

2 cups flour

3 teaspoons baking powder

3 eggs

1/2 cup  butter, softened

3 tablespoons sugar

1/2 cup milk

shortening or lard

Peel oranges and separate into segments. Cut each segment into 1/2 inch pieces. Set aside.

Put flour, baking powder, eggs, butter, sugar, and milk in mixing bowl; stir until combined. Stir in the orange pieces.

Place the shortening or lard into a large skillet, and heat until hot. (There should be about 1/2 inch of melted fat. Add more if needed.) Drop heaping teaspoonsful of batter  into the hot fat.  Cook until lightly browned on the bottom, then gently turn to brown the other side. When browned, remove from the skillet with a fork or slotted spoon. Drain on paper towels, then serve with sauce.


2 tablespoons butter

6 tablespoons powdered sugar

2 egg yolks

1/2 cup finely cut orange

Put butter and powdered sugar in a saucepan; stir to combine. Stir in the egg yolks, then add the finely cut orange pieces. Put in a sauce pan, and heat using medium heat until hot and the sauce begins to thicken. If too thick, add water or orange juice to make thinner. (Note: If lots of sauce is desired for the fritters, the  sauce recipe can be doubled.)

Old-fashioned Dutch Salad

Dutch Salad in bowl

I recently came across a hundred-year-old recipe for Dutch Salad, and decided to give it a try. It is a lettuce salad with a hot vinegar dressing. The this simple, classic salad was delightful.

Here’s the original recipe:

Recipe for Dutch Salad
Source: General Welfare Guild Cook Book (1923, The General Welfare Guild, The Beaver County General Hospital)

This makes a lot of dressing, so I halved the recipe. And, I skipped seasoning the lettuce with salt and pepper.

Here’s the recipe updated for modern cooks:

Dutch Salad

  • Servings: 8 - 10
  • Difficulty: easy
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1 head lettuce

1/2 onion

salt and pepper, if desired

1 1/2  teaspoons butter

1/4 cup sugar

1/2 cup apple cider vinegar

Wash lettuce, dry, and then tear into small pieces and put into a bowl. Cut onion into small pieces and add to the lettuce. If desired sprinkle with salt and pepper.  Set aside.

Melt and lightly brown (using care not to burn) the butter in a skillet. Stir in the sugar and vinegar, using medium heat bring to a boil. Remove from heat and pour over salad. Toss and serve.

Old-fashioned Cheese Biscuits

Cheese Biscuit

I recently made a hundred-year-old recipe for Cheese Biscuits. The recipe was simple to make and the biscuits were tasty. My husband said, “You should make these again sometime,” which is high praise from him.  This recipe is a keeper.

Here’s the original recipe:

Recipe for Cheese Biscuits
Source: The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book (1923)

When I made this recipe, I used shortening rather than lard. Here is the recipe for Baking Powder Biscuits that the Cheese Biscuits recipe refers to:

Recipe for Baking Powder Biscuits
Source: The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book (1923)

And, here’s the recipe updated for modern cooks:

Cheese Biscuits

  • Servings: approximately 6 biscuits
  • Difficulty: moderate
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1 cup bread flour

2 1/2 teaspoons baking powder

1/2 teaspoon salt

1/2 tablespoon lard or shortening

1/2 tablespoons butter, softened

3/8 cup milk and water in equal parts (3/16 cup milk + 3/16 cup water) (Don’t worry if the proportions aren’t exactly the same for the milk and water. It will turn out fine even it they are not.)

1/2 cup grated cheese (I used cheddar cheese.)

Preheat oven to 425° F. Mix the dry ingredients together; cut (work) in the lard or shortening and butter using fingers, pastry blender, or food processor.  Gradually add the milk and water mixture while mixing with a knife or spoon.  Continue adding liquid until there is a soft dough. Add grated cheese, and gently stir until the cheese is evenly distributed.  The amount of water needed varies depending upon the type of flour. On a floured board, pat or roll the dough until 1/2 -inch thick. Cut with a round biscuit cutter. (I used a glass as the cutter.) Place on greased baking sheet, and bake for 12- 15 minutes, or until lightly browned. Serve warm.

Hundred-year-old Tips for Browning Pie Crusts

Slice of Lemon Apple Pie

Here are tips in a hundred-year-old cookbook for browning pie crusts:

To brown pies and tarts, use a small pastry brush and brush them with milk before putting them in the oven, and to glaze pies, brush them with the white of an egg if you wish them to be a shiny brown.

Order of the Eastern Star Relief Fund Cook Book (1923) published by the Michigan Grand Chapter