Making Hay

17-year-old Helena Muffly wrote exactly 100 years ago today: 

Thursday, June 27, 1912:  I worked all afternoon out in the hay field, and my hands which were bad enough now take on a deeper shade every day.

Click on photo to enlarge (Photo Source: Farm Implement Magazine: July 30,1911)

Her middle-aged granddaughter’s comments 100 years later:

Harvesting hay was  hot, dirty, hard work. The sun was hot. Horses needed to be led; hay needed to be lifted and stacked . . .

For a previous post on hay making, see Hay Pulleys and Ropes.

Source: Farm Implement Magazine (July 30, 1911)

1912 Flower Gardens

17-year-old Helena Muffly wrote exactly 100 years ago today: 

Monday, June 24, 1912:  I got so tired a working today. I am about well nigh used up.

Her middle-aged granddaughter’s comments 100 years later:

Sounds like Grandma had a rough day. After hard days I enjoy relaxing in my yard and enjoying my flowers.

I know that Grandma enjoyed  gardening when she was older. Maybe she also enjoyed relaxing amongst flowers when she was young.

Here are some hundred-year-old drawings of flower gardens in the April, 1912 issue of Ladies Home Journal.

Bulls on Farms a Hundred Years Ago

17-year-old Helena Muffly wrote exactly 100 years ago today: 

Friday, June 14, 1912:  Such a time as I had a running after Jake this afternoon. He broke out of the field and when I spied him he was walking up the railroad. Carrie was over this evening.

Recent photo of the railroad tracks that cross the Muffly farm.

Her middle-aged granddaughter’s comments 100 years later:

Hmm—who was Jake? I never really thought about it before, but I bet that the Muffly’s had a bull—and that Jake was the bull’s name.

Photo Source: The Farm Dairy (1908) by H.B. Gurler

Bulls are MEAN. They have unpredictable tempers and sometimes charge people.

This adds a whole new dimension to what watching cows involved. When Grandma wrote about watching cows—it probably wasn’t a pastoral pastime, but a potentially dangerous job.

An aside—Most farmers started using artificial insemination to breed their cows in the 1950s and 60s—and they were very, very glad that they no longer needed to have bulls on the farm.

Dehorning a Cow

16-year-old Helena Muffly wrote exactly 100 years ago today: 

Friday, March 8, 1912:  I think I came out fairly in General History today. I remembered all of my speech, but as my custom is I never get enough pauses and proper way of speaking in the thing. This time it was too fast. Are going to have them again next Friday. They ought to be pretty well digested by that time.

Mollie was shorn of her horns today. Poor thing, I hope she won’t kick the bucket. But I don’t think she will.

Photo source: The Farm Dairy (1908) by H. B. Gurler

Her middle-aged granddaughter’s comments 100 years later:

Mollie was Grandma’s cow. Based on previous diary entries it seems as if each of the Muffly girls owned one the family’s cows.

Mollie had her first calf the previous August, so probably was about 2 1/2 years old when this diary entry was written.

I’m surprised that Mollie’s horns were removed when she was so old. I think that typically horns would either be removed when the cow was younger than this—or the cow would never be dehorned. My gut feeling is that Mollie was acting aggressively toward other cows with her horns—and that as a result ended up being dehorned.

The horns would have been cut off with a tool designed for that purpose. Mollie probably bled quite a bit afterwards—and there would have been the risk of infection.

Dehorning would have been very painful for a few days—though I doubt that there was much chance that the dehorning might actually cause a cow to die (kick the bucket).

The Tennessee Extension Service has a publication that explains how cattle are dehorned. See page 6 for a description of how older cattle are de-horned. I don’t think that the process has changed much in the last hundred years.

Churning Butter a Hundred Years Ago

16-year-old Helena Muffly wrote exactly 100 years ago today: 

Tuesday, December 26, 1911: Am beginning to get rather tired of this seemingly long vacation. When you don’t have anything interesting to do and you don’t go many places it is not very hard to get lonesome. Jimmie and I are turning into regular fight cats, so Ma thinks. I churned this morning, and then set things in order, but don’t suppose they’ll stay that way very long.

Her middle-aged granddaughter’s comments 100 years later:

Grandma sounds bored—and it seems like she and her six-year-old brother Jimmie were getting into fights to make things a little livelier.

When I was a child if I said that I was bored, my parents used to say that I must not be working hard enough and give me a chore. I wonder if Grandma’s mother had the same philosophy. Maybe her mother decided that churning butter would relieve the boredom.

This is the first time that Grandma’s mentioned churning in the diary. I assume that the family just made a little butter for their own use—though many farmers a hundred years ago sold butter.

There are drawings of “modern” butter-making equipment in a book published in 1908 called The Dairy Farm by H.B. Gurler.

The practice of printing butter has grown remarkably during the past fifteen years and now (1908) most of the butter that is retailed is put up in one pound prints which are wrapped in parchment paper, which carries the name of the farm or maker.

Saving Pumpkin and Squash Seeds

16-year-old Helena Muffly wrote exactly 100 years ago today: 

Tuesday, October 31, 1911: Can hardly believe it is really Halloween. It is so very quiet here. No racket whatever. Just a year ago tonight I was having a grand time at a masquerade, but I have not such fun as that tonight. There is a masquerade up at McEwensville tonight. I wasn’t invited and would hardly have gone as it is awful muddy. Feel rather doleful over the mark I made in Algebra: 68. 68, you I hate.

Her middle-aged granddaughter’s comments 100 years later:

Grandma should have studied more for her Algebra test. I guess that she must have never quite figured out L.C.M.  (lowest common multiples) and H.C.F. (highest common factors).

I wonder if Grandma and her little brother Jimmie carved a jack-o-lantern for Halloween. If they did, I bet they saved some of the seeds for planting the next year. 

Both pumpkin and winter squash seeds are easy to save, and have always germinated well when I’ve planted them.

To have the best results, save seeds from the specimens with the most desirable characteristics (size, color, vigor, taste, resistance to plant diseases, etc.)

After pulling off any excess pulp, place the seeds on a piece of waxed paper.  (Do not wash the seeds).  Let dry for about 2 weeks. Then place in a labeled envelope and store in a cool dry place until spring. I store my seed envelopes in our attached garage.

Husking Corn in 1911

16-year-old Helena Muffly wrote exactly 100 years ago today: 

Saturday, October 28, 1911: Had to pick corn all day and didn’t get anything done hardly that I wanted to get done. Besse was out today. Ahem.

Photo source: Wikimedia Commons

Her middle-aged granddaughter’s comments 100 years later:

Picking corn was hard work in the days before corn pickers and combines. I can see why Grandma was really happy that her married sister Besse came out to the farm to help.  I bet they were exhausted by the end of the day.

Corn ears needed to be broken off the stalks one ear at a time and then thrown into a nearby wagon that was pulled by horses. A team of several people were needed to complete this process—one person to drive the horses, and one or more people to pick the corn.

According to the Farm Collector website, 80 bushels was about the maximum amount of corn one person could husk in a day–though the goal often was 100 bushels per person per day.

Click here to see an awesome video of people husking corn the old-fashioned way at the 2007 Nebraska State Hand Corn Huskers competition.